Knee Cartilage Repair

Hyaline cartilage is a form of mesenchymal tissue that lines the articulating surfaces of the knee. It acts to distribute the load and friction across the joint with the lubricating effect of synovial fluid. In degenerative joint disease, the damaged cartilage loses its function which leads to excessive wear and stress in the knee.

Depending on the degree of cartilage injury, there are different knee cartilage repair surgeries indicated to reduce the progression of osteoarthritis.


  • Arthroscopic chondroplasty
  • Arthroscopic microfracture
  • Osteochondral autologous transfer surgery (OATS)
  • Knee joint distraction


  1. Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah & Corona, Katia & Totlis, Trifon & Chan Li Yi, Tammy & Salreta, Jose & Sleiman, Obeida & Vasso, Michele & Baums, Mike. (2023). Mesenchymal stem cell implantation provides short-term clinical improvement and satisfactory cartilage restoration in patients with knee osteoarthritis but the evidence is limited: a systematic review performed by the early-osteoarthritis group of ESSKA-European knee associates section. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 31. DOI: 10.1007/s00167-023-07575-w.
  2. Xinyu, T.A.O. & Aw, Angeline & Leeu, Jun Jie & Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah. (2023). Three doses of PRP therapy may be more effective than one dose of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery. 39. DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2023.05.018.
  3. Chua, Yi & Koh, Don & Lee, Kong Hwee. (2023). Fresh Femoral Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation Using a Single-Plug Technique for Large Osteochondral Defects of the Knee. Arthroscopy Techniques. 12. DOI: 10.1016/j.eats.2022.10.012.
  4. Teo, S.J., Koh, D.T.S., Soong, J.W. et al. Distalization of hinge site with use of hinge wire reduces hinge fracture rates in closing wedge distal femoral osteotomy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 31, 3141–3150 (2023). DOI: 10.1007/s00167-022-07286-8
  5. Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah & Campos, João & Khakha, Raghbir & Wilson, Adrian & Heerwaarden, Ronald. (2021). Role of joint distraction in osteoarthritis of the knee: Basic science, principles and outcomes. Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. 24. 101723. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcot.2021.101723.
  6. Aw, Angeline & Leeu, Jun Jie & Tao, Xinyu & Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah. (2021). Comparing the efficacy of dual Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Hyaluronic Acid (HA) therapy with PRP-alone therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics. 8. DOI: 10.1186/s40634-021-00415-1.
  7. Betzler, Brjan & Chee, Yan-Yu & Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah. (2021). Intraosseous Injections Are Safe And Effective in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review. Arthroscopy, Sports Medicine, and Rehabilitation. 3. DOI: 10.1016/j.asmr.2021.06.006.
  8. Phua, Jonathan & Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah & Mitra, Amit. (2020). Arthroscopic procedures could delay the need for a subsequent knee arthroplasty in older patients with end-stage osteoarthritis. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 28. 230949902090674. DOI: 10.1177/2309499020906745.
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